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Henry Thompson
Henry Thompson

Download File HTTP-16-11-22.txt

I am trying to generate my first jasper report using 'Generate Oracle entry report' job. I have downloaded the required jar files related to Jasper reports 3.5.2 and added them to the classpath extension in identity center.

Download File HTTP-16-11-22.txt

Effort has been expended in developing Docker containers. Deconstructed into one or more compressed archives (typically split across multiple segments, or layers as they are known in Docker parlance) plus some metadata, images for these containers are built from specifications known as Dockerfiles. The public Docker Hub, as well as various private registries, host images for use as Docker containers. SingularityCE has from the outset emphasized the importance of interoperability with Docker. As a consequence, this section of the SingularityCE User Docs first makes its sole focus interoperabilty with Docker. In so doing, the following topics receive attention here:

Here docker is prepended to ensure that the run command of SingularityCE is instructed to boostrap container creation based upon this Docker image, thus creating a complete URI for SingularityCE. SingularityCE subsequently downloads all the OCI blobs that comprise this image, and converts them into a single SIF file - the native format for SingularityCE containers. Because this image from Docker Hub is cached locally in the $HOME/.singularity/cache/oci-tmp//lolcow_latest.sif directory, where will be replaced by the appropriate hash for the container, the image does not need to be downloaded again (from Docker Hub) the next time a SingularityCE run is executed. In other words, the cached copy is sensibly reused:

In converting to SIF, individual layers of the Docker image have been combined into a single, native file for use by SingularityCE; there is no need to subsequently build the image for SingularityCE. For example, you can now exec, run or shell into the SIF version via SingularityCE, as described above.

The build command is used to create SingularityCE containers. Because it is documented extensively elsewhere in this manual, only specifics relevant to Docker are provided here - namely, working with Docker Hub via the SingularityCE command line and through SingularityCE definition files.

The Sylabs Cloud Remote Builder does not interoperate with local Docker daemons; therefore, images cached locally by Docker, cannot be used to bootstrap creation of SIF files via the Remote Builder service. Of course, a SIF file could be created locally as detailed above. Then, in a separate, manual step, pushed to the Sylabs Cloud SingularityCE Library.

The Sylabs Cloud Remote Builder does not interoperate with locally stored Docker-format images; therefore, images cached locally by Docker, cannot be used to bootstrap creation of SIF files via the Remote Builder service. Of course, a SIF file could be created locally as detailed above. Then, in a separate, manual step, pushed to the Sylabs Cloud SingularityCE Library.

The outcome of bootstrapping from an image cached locally by Docker, or one stored locally as an archive, is of course a locally stored SIF file. As noted above, this is the only option available, as the Sylabs Cloud Remote Builder does not interoperate with the Docker daemon or locally stored archives in the Docker image format. Once produced, however, it may be desirable to make the resulting SIF file available through the Sylabs Cloud SingularityCE Library; therefore, the procedure to push a locally available SIF file to the Library is detailed here.

The hosted version of the SIF file in the Sylabs Cloud SingularityCE Library is maintainable. In other words, if the image is updated locally, the update can be pushed to the Library and tagged appropriately.

In addition to the command-line support described above, the Sylabs Cloud Remote Builder also allows definition files to be copied and pasted into its Graphical User Interface (GUI). After pasting a definition file, and having that file validated by the service, the build-centric part of the GUI appears as illustrated below. By clicking on the Build button, creation of the container is initiated.

Once the build process has been completed, the corresponding SIF file can be retrieved from the service - as shown below. A log file for the build process is provided by the GUI, and made available for download as a text file (not shown here).

When docker-daemon is the bootstrap agent in a SingularityCE definition file, SIF containers can be created from images cached locally by Docker. Suppose the definition file lolcow-d.def has contents:

The sudo requirement in the above build request originates from SingularityCE; it is the standard requirement when use is made of definition files. In other words, membership of the issuing user in the docker Linux group is of no consequence in this context.

Alternatively when docker-archive is the bootstrap agent in a SingularityCE definition file, SIF containers can be created from images stored locally by Docker. Suppose the definition file lolcow-da.def has contents:

Thus far, use of Docker Hub has been assumed. To make use of a different repository of Docker images the optional Registry keyword can be added to the SingularityCE definition file. For example, to make use of a Docker image from the NVIDIA GPU Cloud (NGC) corresponding definition file is:

In other words, introduction of a %runscript section into the SingularityCE definition file causes the ENTRYPOINT of the Dockerfile to be bypassed. The presence of the %runscript section would also bypass a CMD entry in the Dockerfile.

To preserve use of ENTRYPOINT and/or CMD as defined in the Dockerfile, the %runscript section must be absent from the SingularityCE definition. In this case, and to favor execution of CMD over ENTRYPOINT, a non-empty assignment of the optional IncludeCmd should be included in the header section of the SingularityCE definition file as follows:

As stated above (i.e., the first case of execution precedence), the very existence of a %runscript section in a SingularityCE definition file takes precedence over commands that might exist in the Dockerfile.

From this Bourne shell script, it is evident that only an ENTRYPOINT is detailed in the Dockerfile; thus the ENTRYPOINT only - run entrypoint plus args conditional block is executed. In this case then, the third case of execution precedence has been illustrated.

The example detailed in the previous section can be used to illustrate how a SIF file for use by SingularityCE can be created from the local cache - an albeit contrived example, that works because the SingularityCE cache is compliant with the OCI Image Layout Specification.

In other words, it is the $OCI_BUNDLE_DIR containing the data and metadata that collectively comprise the image layed out in accordance with the OCI Image Layout Specification as discussed previously - the same data and metadata that are assembled into a single SIF file through the build process. However,

does not uniquely specify an image from which to bootstrap the build process. In other words, there are multiple images referenced via in the index.json file. By appending :a692b57abc43035b197b10390ea2c12855d21649f2ea2cc28094d18b93360eeb to oci in this example, the image is uniquely specified, and the container created in SIF (as illustrated previously).

Executing the SingularityCE pull command multiple times on the same image produces multiple entries in the index.json file. Appending the value of the unique allows for use of the oci boostrap agent.

OCI archives, i.e., tar files obeying the OCI Image Layout Specification as discussed previously, can seed creation of a container for SingularityCE. In this case, use is made of the oci-archive bootstrap agent.

Cache maintenance is a manual process at the current time. In other words, the cache can be cleared by carefully issuing the command rm -rf $HOME/.singularity/cache. Of course, this will clear the local cache of all downloaded images.

Because the layers of a Docker image as well as the blobs of an OCI image are already gzip compressed, there is a minimal advantage to having compressed archives representing OCI images. For this reason, the build detailed above boostraps a SIF file for use by SingularityCE from only a tar file, and not a tar.gz file.

In the previous section, an OCI archive was created from locally available OCI blobs and metadata; the resulting tar file served to bootstrap the creation of a container for SingularityCE in SIF via the oci-archive agent. Typically, however, OCI archives of interest are remotely hosted. Consider, for example, an Alpine Linux OCI archive stored in Amazon S3 storage. Because such an archive can be retrieved via secure HTTP, the following pull command results in a local copy as follows:

Three, new bootstrap agents have been introduced as a consequence of compliance with the OCI Image Specification - assuming http and https are considered together. In addition to bootstrapping images for SingularityCE completely from the command line, definition files can be employed.

Recall that the colon-appended string in this file uniquely specifies the of the desired image, as more than one possibility exists in the index.json file. The corresponding build command is:

Container metadata will also reveal whether or not a given SIF file was bootstrapped from an OCI bundle or archive; for example, below it is evident that an OCI archive was employed to bootstrap creation of the SIF file:

To avoid fetching duplicate docker or OCI layers every time you want to run, exec etc. a docker:// or oci:// container directly, SingularityCE keeps a cache of layer files. The SIF format container that SingularityCE creates from these layers is also cached. This means that re-running a docker container, e.g. singularity run docker://alpine is much faster until the upstream image changes in docker hub, and a new SIF must be built from updated layers. 041b061a72


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