Windows Trust 3 Fr Iso
There is no reason to stop using the last and one of the best versions, of window, after MS have ended support, even on line. I think windows 7 will be supported for a long time as most hate windows 10, like I do.
Windows Trust 3 Fr Iso
The Northolt siege was a hostage situation which developed in Northolt, West London, on 25 December 1985. After a domestic dispute, Errol Walker forced entry into his sister-in-law's flat in Poynter Court (pictured). He killed the woman, keeping her daughter and his own daughter hostage. He released his daughter, but held the other girl hostage. After more than a day, he ventured onto the communal balcony to pick up an abandoned riot shield. Armed officers tried to intercept him but he made it back to the flat. They threw stun grenades through the windows, their first use by British police, and climbed through the kitchen window. One officer found Walker lying on a sofa, holding a knife to the child, and fired three shots, the first shooting by the Metropolitan Police's Firearms Wing. Walker was shot twice, and was later given life imprisonment for murder and other offences. One historian of the unit felt that the incident showed that the police had an alternative for crises that could not be resolved peacefully. (Full article...)
The System and Organization Controls (SOC) is a program from the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). It is intended to provide internal control reports on the services provided by a service organization. A SOC 1 report helps companies to establish trust and confidence in their service delivery processes and controls. The intent of these reports focuses on Internal Controls over Financial Reporting (ICFR). For more information, see
So, why is cloud computing so slow to gain customer confidence and demonstrate its value? And what can cloud service providers do to build confidence in their prospective markets? To answer these questions, we first need to understand the role of trust.
Trust is a precondition for good business. When relationships are based on trust, costs are lower, communications between parties are easier and interactions are simpler. As a social construct, trust is defined as the mutual readiness between people and organisations to assume that fair-play rules will be met, even if opportunistic behaviour might be possible. In a business context, an additional assumption is that every effort will be made to ensure the quality of services provided.
Further distrust comes from IT staff at all levels, as staffing levels and quality of service are key metrics for their departments. IT departments clearly need to deliver services at the same level as external service providers; otherwise their roles will be called into question. However, the people with the technical knowledge required to understand requirements and define how cloud services could be used are also the ones who feel their jobs might be at risk. Decision makers concerned about their own job security are hardly likely to give cloud providers the benefit of the doubt.
We see a power struggle between the business, the IT department and service providers, each competing for the primary role: who is in charge of delivering the technology foundation for the enterprise? As many providers have found, once established, distrust is hard to shake off.
Having analysed the role of trust at each level, the Cloud Trust Pyramid offers a framework for organisations to assess both their own positions and their relationships with prospective service providers. We explore the layers in more detail in the following sections.
Trust is the foundation of every business relationship. For example, what gives people confidence to hand over their money to a bank? Or indeed, why should any organisation transfer sensitive and valuable information into the cloud? Given that providers achieve cost savings through automation, cloud computing fundamentally means doing business with someone you do not know. In this section, we first consider the role of trust, and then look at how this applies to the provision of cloud services.
Of course, simply having trust is insufficient for business relationships in itself. Conditions of service, together with contractual terms, define this understanding in formal terms to ensure both sides are clear on what is being provided and how much it costs, and to ensure a legal basis for the relationship should things go wrong. Contracts with an incomplete definition of obligations run the risk of future disputes.
Cloud computing is clearly an area where trust is of paramount importance. If the cloud is to add significant business value (as opposed to offloading the occasional processing task), an organisation will look to hand over potentially critical data as well as the ability to execute core business operations and processes. In other words, significant control is being handed over to a potentially unknown third party.
So, how can such a fundamental layer of trust be built between cloud providers and their customers? First and foremost, organisations owe it to themselves to undertake appropriate due diligence of both providers and service types. To enable this to happen as smoothly as possible, the following best practices apply:
This leads to a fundamental paradox of the cloud. The level of compliance that needs to be fulfilled is much higher than with conventional on-premise IT; however underlying fears persist, notably loss of control and data risk. As some services are abstract and intangible, together with the risk of espionage, it is hard for cloud providers to fully counter all of these concerns. Both transparency and trust are necessary to gain general acceptance for cloud services. Fundamentally, this needs to be both enshrined in regulation and reflected in the contract between supplier and customer.
Comprehensive cloud due diligence should look to provide clarity to stakeholders by indicating laws and regulations relevant to the services concerned, from a business perspective. Our view is that improved legal and regulatory frameworks, coupled with strengthening instruction and control duties through self-regulation and certification, will lead to a more trusting attitude towards cloud computing.
The greatest leverage for a trustworthy cloud computing would be an internationally coordinated, reliable and optimised legal and regulatory framework. While international regulation is quite clearly a work in progress, cloud providers can do more to help customers conform with their own legal and regulatory obligations. For example, providers should improve their own auditing processes, certifications, branch-specific codes of conduct and self-commitments. While the cloud providers may submit themselves to third party audits (at their expense), more sophisticated organisations will expect to be able to audit cloud providers and receive full reports, rather than the summaries typically provided by cloud providers. These audits will prove to be cumbersome for the provider as they will be repetitive in nature and disruptive to key staff.
While more onerous controls (and therefore expense) can be avoided through use of self-regulation, it should be seen as supplementary to the legally binding protection of data privacy. Therefore, self-declarations need also to contain statements concerning compliance with national systems of laws, interoperability, data portability and quality of service (note 16). The promotion of self-regulation and codes of conduct, and their acceptance (by cloud customers) as proof of compliance with obligations of care and control, are central to improving perceptions of the trusted cloud.
Both security and accessibility can be addressed through the adoption of appropriate standards. However these are still immature in the domain of cloud. Against this background, what can both providers and customers do to raise the level of trust?
BearingPoint advises companies to start with understanding the protection need, following by the definition of cloud specific safety requirements, through a security and trust check of cloud providers at all stages right up to safe deployment and data migration.
Aligning cloud services with the business requires higher levels of trust than simple questions of interoperability or security. Challenges range from identifying and adopting the right business models and governance structures, to ensuring effective IT support for business users. We cover these below, together with approaches to deal with them.
To enable cloud delivery models to align with customer business requirements, trustworthy relationships between the cloud provider, the IT department and the business have to be established. IT department decision processes and organisational structures have to be (re)designed and changed actively to leverage cloud computing and related business benefits, according to the following:
Throughout this paper, the role of trust is considered against the need for formalising a relationship using contractual frameworks. To further demonstrate trust, cloud providers need to change their approach to contracts.
So far we have established a sense of the potential and barriers of cloud computing. So what has to be done to start a successful cloud project or programme? How to select and assess matching cloud services and trusted providers? And how to migrate applications safely to the cloud? For adoption of cloud services to take place in any significant manner, it needs to be seen as a process starting with the development of a cloud strategy and ending with the organisational changes required to ensure it can deliver a return on its investment.
If not performed by in-house IT, a shortlist of suppliers can then be identified and filtered on the basis of their capabilities and specific trust criteria. From a trust perspective, delivery of applicable cloud services needs to take into account the willingness of the organisation to adopt each service, based on past experience and market knowledge as well as the reputation of the provider.